CBSE SYLLABUS 12th Chemistry
CBSE SYLLABUS 12th Chemistry
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
p -Block Elements
d -and f -Block Elements
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Aldehydes, Ketons and Carboxylic Acids
Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
Chemistry in Everyday Life
Unit I: Solid State (Periods 12)
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions (Periods 12)
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van't Hoff factor.
Unit III: Electrochemistry (Periods 14)
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell -electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics (Periods 12)
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry (Periods 8)
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic , lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.
Unit VI : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Periods 8)
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII: p -Block Elements (Periods 14)
Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses ; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only) ; Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PCl5 and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure -allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties and uses of sulphur-dioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements (Periods 14)
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactvity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds (Periods 12)
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. (Periods 12)
Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.
Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12)
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (Periods 12)
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
UnitXIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen (Periods 10)
Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules (Periods 12)
Proteins -Elementary idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Unit XV: Polymers (Periods 8)
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life (Periods 8)
Chemicals in food - preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.